Year 2 Flax Study Group, The Violent bit’s at the end!
A review of year 2 so far
This year the flax study group planted the seed we had harvested from last year. We had enough to double our planting and had 2 rows planted this year. We had 2 covid-modified weeding parties at 4 to 6 inches of growth but without the wonderful cake to celebrate successful weeding!
The first part of the summer was very dry and hot so the flax was ready earlier than anticipated. We left the harvested bundles of Flax resting against the garden fence to dry.
Then the weather turned and it rained and rained and rained. (I should not have been trying to wash those fleeces in the side yard! See the blog post about sentient weather.) The flax started its retting while it tried to dry. Once it had finally dried enough, we were back out (August 29th) to extract seed from stock. The seeds this year are MUCH smaller than last years, and lighter in weight. The seed pods were definitely ready to pick but the dry weather was hard on the plants (shorter in stature and smaller seeds). We used a number of seed extraction methods. The double rakes were great and the pillowcases and rolling pins were effective too. Unfortunately, winnowing (using the wind to seperate chaff from seed) was not working, not much wind and the seed was as light as the chaff) we had the best success with Henrys Sieves from the grain silos. (Brilliant idea Henry!!)
Next the Flax, now de-seeded, went to the spa. (large trough of water with therapeutic cinderblocks to hold it under!) With the retting complete, we were ready to move on to the violent part of the process; Brakes, Skutching and the lovely Hackles! We set a date in November that we hoped most of us would be available to meet again at Cathy Louises’ coverall barn (the part the cows don’t live in! They are very cute cows but I don’t want to have to share the flax with them)
Now that we are all caught up again, let’s get to the best part of Flax processing; the vicious violent bits!
11/07/2020 Covid canceled our Guild sale but that leaves the Saturday free to start in on the flax. We met at the coverall barn on a fabulously wonderful un-fall-like day. It was so nice we worked in front of the barn, enjoying mild weather, the sun and no rain!
Step 1 Braking;
The first step was braking the flax stocks to loosen and start the removal of the outer stock covering (the boon) from the long inner fibres which will become the linen. Bernadette, Ann and Cathy Louise experimented with hand braking before sending it to the brake but that was not as helpful as we had hoped. If you did not have access to a flax brake this may be an option for you but it would take a lot of working the stocks to loosen the boon.
Glenn and Gord were our main brakers this year. Glenn’s knee has been bothering him (postal work has not been diminished by Covid) so he quickly gave up on standing and has perfected the seated braking position.
We had a couple of flax videos posted on our OVWSG flax study group Facebook page they were unfortunately in German (about Hackling) and in Russian about braking. From the video, Glenn modified his technique on the second Saturday to add scraping movements to the end of the braking. This seemed to make the next step a little easier.
The technique seems to be to hold the root end, start at the tip (where the seeds were) and brake towards the roots flipping which side of the bundle is facing up. This first pass was done vigorously. Then work from the tip towards roots a little at a time still flipping the bundle but scraping gently each section as it is finished. Then flip and work the roots, which often broke off.
23 the fibre is handed off to the next step
Step 2 Skutching;
As we got going, we had two primary brakers and 2-3 skutchers and the rest of us were on Hackle duty or taking photos. Skutching is a percussive movement hitting or flicking the stocks to loosen and remove as much of the outer layer as possible. The Skutching team were finding that splitting the bundle (by gently tugging on the ends) then reorienting the stocks parallel and continuing to skutch was effective.
30 fibre is sent to the next step
There was an intermittent breeze that kept depositing fibre into the shrubberies. (Sort of like pre-Christmas tinsel) I am sure the birds were sorry we didn’t do this part in the spring.
31-33 Early Christmas tincil
Step 3 Hackles!!
The next step is my favourite part, the Hackles. They’re like a very sharp multi-pitch Viking comb that is clamped to the table. The flax is dragged through the top of the sharp pointy bloodletting teeth, removing even more of the boon. I watched the German video about Hackles, it was highly informative even with my only random words of German. He definitely was adamant about the angle, I think? I tried to mimic his diagonal pull through with change of direction on exiting the hackles. I also tried the flipping one side up then the other for each pass. This left the flax quite clean.
The hackling starts through the coarsest teeth then moves to finer and finer. Each step removes more boon. I was able to take out a few stubborn bits by flicking at them with a fingernail. We also were drafting off the hackles as the tow built up in it. The remnants still trapped in the comb, we bagged to process with the drum carder next week.
44 some of the line
Just so you don’t think we were horribly overworked, we did break for Pizza
We did quite well today but only got about half way through the harvest, well we did double the planting we did this year! So far, the flax is short but very fine. We bagged the tow for next week and made little stricks of the line. We did do a lot of work but it doesn’t show from the pile remaining!
Some of the flax has a distinct hue of green. The rest looks very familiar.
11/14/2020 Day 2, similar in process to day 1 but with less sun or good temperatures.
It was much colder today, still no fluffy solid rain or serious cloud dandruff, yet (Yeah!!) so we moved into the coverall to work. The hacklers were by the barn door, while it provided great light there was a cool breeze. We continued to work on the braking and finished it off, leaving one bundle to compare with last years. We continued working on the skutching and hackling and added making batts with the tow.
Our tow team today was Deborah and Cathy Louise.
Deborah and Cathy Louise worked together to make batts of the tow. We tried one pass but decided to try a second pass which was markedly improved. They tried a third pass, but it was deemed very similar to the second pass. We found the waste from the drum carder to be very soft and have kept it. We tried hand combing it with small 2 pitch hand combs with a good test result. We will collect the carding waste and comb it later. Using the drum carder caused a lot of the chaff/boon to drop out underneath it.
67-68 first and second pass
69-70 Second and third pass
71-72 Drum carder waste combed
We compared last year’s plant after retting to this year and saw a difference in height and this year’s plants are much finer in the stock. They were planted about 2 weeks earlier, but also harvested earlier than last year. We did not harvest too soon since the plants had flowered and were producing seeds so it was the correct time to harvest. It was extremely dry this summer until we harvested then it rained, a lot!
We got most of the skutching finished today too.
We bagged up the batts of tow we created today. We will be weighing the amounts of line and tow we have created likely next week.
We will be back to work for our last day of processing this year next Saturday. There is a bit more to hackle then all the tow to process. When we are done, we will weigh out the tow and line and see what our yield was this year. Although the flax was definitely reduced in height the fineness of the fiber is spectacular, even the tow is soft and quite nice. I am looking forward to getting one of the flax wheels upstairs and put to work spinning part of this year’s harvest.
The spot we had the flax growing this summer is turned for winter and garlic has been planted there. It has been an amazing experience working with the flax team. Next year is a bit up in the air, we will hope to be changing planting locations or we may wind up taking a summer off.
9 thoughts on “Year 2 Flax Study Group, The Violent bit’s at the end!”
Thankyou . …..What a brilliant insight into the production of flax. I will look at my flax bundles and understand the time and energy needed to get to the completed product.
Thanks Patricia, it was a lot of work but the end product is worth it! this years was amazinly fine and soft. it dose make you apresiate the hours of work that gose into just getting to the state that its ready to spin, there is still the spinning weaving and sewing left to do!
Fabulous photographic documentary – thank you.
We are all spoiled aren’t we when we can just go online and order fibres with not a thought to how much work is needed to produce them.
The accidental tinsel is pretty.
Thanks Annielynrosie! it is nice to be able to jump into the pocedure at any point and do the part you like to do best, if you dont have room to plant a flax crop or keep sheep for your spinning/felting/weaving/knitting needs its grate to take up the process where you can. if you ever get the chance to do the processing start to finish grab the opertunity, even if you only do it once and think it was no fun at all you gain from the nolage of having done it.
Thanks for the update on the flax. I think I like being spoiled being able to buy what fiber I want without all the work. But I imagine that there is real satisfaction in completing the process and using the result.
Yes Ruth, this second year the fiber is finer and we are getting better at pocessing it. to see the first pice of line leave the hackles was amazing! now i will be much pickyer about what flax i by to spin. now i wonder how it would felt…..(yes i would have to add wool to hold it together!)
thanks Jackie! it was a bit of a long post this time! i am glad you enjoyed it
A great photo story. It was fun to go help out. I jumped in after the weeding and harvesting. It really does make you understand why linens were passed down through the generations. Makes wool look easy.